Pengelolaan Bakau Secara Berkelanjutan: Potensi Diversifikasi Mata Pencaharian dan Aturan Lokal di antara Komunitas-Komunitas Pesisir di Papua Barat

Abstrak

Hutan Bakau memiliki peranan penting dalam menahan laju perubahan iklim. Ekosistem ini mampu menyimpan kandungan karbon empat kali lebih besar dibandingkan dengan hutan hujan tropis. Wilayah pesisir merupakan rumah bagi masyarakat pesisir yang menggantungkan hidup pada lingkungan sekitar mereka. Masih sedikit kajian yang membahas mengenai peran masyarakat pesisir dalam menjaga hutan bakau, khususnya dalam upaya mengimplementasikan Provinsi Papua Barat sebagai provinsi konservasi. Studi menggunakan metode kualitatif untuk mengkaji bagaimana masyarakat pesisir mengelola sumber daya alam bakau dan kaitannya dengan pengelolaan sumber daya alam lain. Wilayah penelitian meliputi kampung yang menjadi lokasi penelitian adalah Kampung Kambala Distrik Buruway Kabupaten Kaimana, Kampung Mandoni Distrik Kokas Kabupaten Fakfak, Kampung Modan Distrik Babo Kabupaten Teluk Bintuni, Kampung Mugim Distrik Matemani Kabupaten Sorong Selatan, Kampung Nusa Distrik Matemani Kabupaten Sorong Selatan, dan Kampung Wailebet, Distrik Batanta Selatan, Kabupaten Raja Ampat. Diversifikasi pemanfaatan ekosistem bakau oleh komunitas pesisir berdasarkan pada pemenuhan kebutuhan subsistensi dan ekonomi. Hasil kajian ini mengungkapkan bahwa terdapat dua tipologi komunitas pesisir di Papua Barat berdasarkan karakter pemanfaatan dan pengelolaan hutan bakau yang secara aktif dan pasif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa masyarakat pesisir merupakan bagian integral dan penting yang mampu berkontribusi terhadap implementasi provinsi konservasi. Ragam mata pencaharian serta kekayaan budaya berupa aturan-aturan lokal yang disepakati bersama merupakan modal untuk menuju pengelolaan hutan bakau secara berkelanjutan.

https://doi.org/10.47039/ish.3.2021.65-77
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